Pillarization of global agendas
The topic disaster risk management (DRM) is at the center of the Sendai Framework for disaster risk reduction. It is also reflected in the Paris Agreement on Climate Change (article 8), the New Urban Agenda (chapter on ‘Environmentally sustainable and resilient urban development’) and the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development (goal1/ no poverty, 11/ sustainable cities, 13/ climate action). The importance of DRM is therefore recognized by all important international post-2015 agendas and its implementation is a globally accepted requirement for all nations.
In 2015, the euphoria surrounding the development of the global agendas only let to limited alignment of the different agreements. The agendas are the result of negotiations of different specialist communities with their selective perception of global problems such as sustainability, climate change and urbanization and their own prioritization and terminology. Thus, the four agendas require different actions and commitments from different ministries and stakeholders on national and local level to develop nationally appropriate strategies for public investments, capacity development, establishment of data and information systems, development of insurance mechanisms and rules and regulations concerning topics such as land-use and spatial planning. This necessitates cooperation between different ministries, but also between administrative units and between national and local levels. At the same time, countries need to report on their progress with regard to each of the global agendas at an international level. Especially during the implementation of the agendas, international policy processes are not using synergies sufficiently and thus lead to duplication and overlaps. Different financing and support mechanisms of the global agendas reinforce inefficiencies.
The situation described above potentially leads to tremendous additional expenses: transaction costs are increased due to overlapping responsibilities and duplicative data collection and reporting. At the same time, countries incur considerable opportunity costs when DRM is not considered in their national climate adaptation, urban development and economic and social development plans and policies. The observed segmentation of the global agendas is therefore also influencing national and local levels of governance.